You should be able too.
The homestead is likely running Ubunut 14, there is a version in apt-get, sudo apt-get install sqlcipher, not sure if that includes the php libs though. Some info on compiling the php libs is at https://www.zetetic.net/sqlcipher/sqlcipher-for-php
You also might ask on the google group, https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/sqlcipher they seem to be helpful
Hope that points you in the right direction.
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